Greenville, the county seat of Meriwether County, became a city on December 20, 1828. The city is named in honor of Revolutionary war hero General Nathaniel Greene.

The Meriwether County courthouse in Greenville was constructed around 1903 and burned in 1976. The first courthouse in Meriwether County was destroyed in 1893 by a cyclone.

Although Greenville is the county seat, the largest municipality is Manchester. Other cities in the county include Gay, Lone Oak, Luthersville, Warm Springs, and Woodbury.

According to 2000 Census, the City of Greenville had a population of 946 persons. Between 1990 and 2000, the city experienced a population decrease of -18.9%, compared to the state growth during this period of 26.4%.